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"Many a small thing
  has been made large
by the right kind
of advertising."
- Mark Twain
GLOSSARY
ADSL -
ADSL is the acronym for "asymmetric digital subscriber line", a phone company technology that expands the capacity of existing copper telephone lines. ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data - known as the "downstream" rate - and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data - known as the "upstream" rate. ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.

DOCSIS -
DOCSIS is the acronym for "Data Over Cable Systems Interface Specification". This is a standard interface for cable modems. Many Cable Companies have adopted the DOCSIS standard so that you will not have to worry about current or future compatibility. Support for the DOCSIS standard makes your modem portable: if you move to another part of the country and your new cable service provider is DOCSIS compliant, you will be able to use your DOCSIS cable modem for high speed Internet connections.

DSL -
Digital Subscriber Line or DSL is a technology that uses existing 2-wire copper telephone wiring to deliver high-speed data services to homes and businesses. Offering users a choice of speeds ranging from 144 Kbps to 1.5Mbps, the technology provides Internet access that is 2.5x to 25x times faster than a standard 56Kbps dial-up modem.

The maximum DSL speed is determined by the distance between the customer's site and the Central Office (CO). At the customer premises, a DSL router or modem connects the DSL line to a local-area network (LAN) or an individual computer. Once installed, the DSL router provides the customer site with continuous connection to the Internet and use of the telephone at the same time.
Ethernet -
Ethernet is a local-area network (LAN) protocol developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Supporting data transfer rates of 10 Mbps, it is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards. A newer version of Ethernet, called 100Base-T (or Fast Ethernet), supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps. And the newest version, Gigabit Ethernet supports data rates of 1 gigabit (1,000 megabits) per second.
ICQ -
ICQ is an instant messaging program developed by Mirabilis LTD. Prounounced like "I-Seek-You," ICQ is similar to AOL's popular Buddy List and Instant Messenger programs. Many Internet users employ the program for chat, e-mail, to perform file transfers, play computer games and more.

Once you have downloaded and installed ICQ onto your computer, you can create a list of friends, family, business associates who should also be using ICQ.
ICQ uses this list to locate the members of your list and notifies you once they have signed onto the Net. You can then send messages, chat in real time and play games.
I.P. Address -
Internet Protocol or IP specifies the format of data packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme, or where those data packets will go. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transport Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source.
IP functions something like our postal system allowing you to address and a package through the system, but without a direct link between you and the recipient.
TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection between two hosts - or, in our analogy, post offices, so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.
IRC -
Internet Relay Chat is a chat system developed by Jarkko Oikarinen in Finland in the late 1980s. IRC has become very popular because it enables people to join in live discussions. IRC differs a lot from web chat in part because it offers a wider range of functionality. And it's very robust: the larger IRC networks have thousands of users at once in thousands of channels.

To join an IRC discussion, you need an IRC client and Internet access. The IRC client is a program that runs on your computer and sends and receives messages to and from an IRC server. The IRC server, in turn, is responsible for making sure that all messages are broadcast to everyone participating in a discussion.
ISDN -
ISDN, or "integrated services digital network" is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second). Most ISDN lines offered by telephone companies provide two lines at once, called B channels. One line conveys voice and the other, data, or both lines together can convey data at rates of 128 Kbps, three times the data rate provided by today's fastest telphone modems.

The original version of ISDN employs baseband transmission. Another version requiring fiber optic cables is called B-ISDN ("b" is for "broadband") and supports transmission rates of 1.5 Mbps; it is not widely available.
Kbps -
Short for kilobits per second, Kbps is a measure of data transfer speed. Note that one Kbps is 1,000 bits per second, whereas a KB (kilobyte) is actually 1,024 bytes. Data transfer rates are measured using the decimal meaning of K whereas data storage is measured using the powers-of-2 meaning of K. Technically, kbps should be spelled with a lowercase k to indicate that it is decimal but it is nevertheless widely spelled with a capital K.
mIRC -
While Internet Relay Chat is the system for chatting, mIRC is one of the software applications used for IRC. According to www.mirc.net (where you can download mIRC), "no one is quite sure what the 'm' in 'mIRC' stands for."

To join an IRC discussion, you need an IRC client such as mIRC, a program that runs on your computer and sends and receives messages to and from an IRC server.
Newsgroup -
Newsgroups are on-line discussion groups. There are literally thousands of newsgroups covering every conceivable interest on the Internet. To view and post messages to a newsgroup, you need a news reader, a program that runs on your computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet.
NIC -
A Network Interface Card or NIC is an expansion board inserted into a slot inside your computer so the computer can be connected to and communicate on a network. Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network, protocol and media although some can serve multiple networks. Note: NIC may be used interchangeably with, "ethernet adapter".
POP 3 -
Short for Post Office Protocol, a protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server. Most e-mail applications (sometimes called an e-mail client) use the POP protocol, although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
There are two versions of POP. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
RAM -
RAM stands for "Random Access Memory", a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly - that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.

In common usage, the term RAM is synonymous with main memory, the memory available to programs. For example, a computer with 8M RAM has approximately 8 million bytes of memory that programs can use. In contrast, ROM (read-only memory) refers to special memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. Most personal computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes). In fact, both types of memory (ROM and RAM) allow random access. To be precise, therefore, RAM should be referred to as read/write RAM and ROM as read-only RAM.
RJ-45 Connection -
The acronym for, "registered jack-45", this is an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto a local-area networks (LAN), especially Ethernets. RJ-45 connectors look similar to the ubiquitous RJ-11 connectors used for connecting telephone equipment, but they are somewhat wider.
SMTP -
SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to send e-mail messages between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application.
Spam -
Spam refers to electronic junk mail or newsgroup postings, more specifically, unsolicited e-mail advertising for some product sent to names on a mailing list or newsgroup.

Because spam wastes time and also eats up a lot of network bandwidth, there are many organizations and individuals who assumed the task of fighting spam. However, the very public nature of the Internet does make it as difficult to prevent spam as it is to prevent junk mail.

There is some debate about the source of the term, but the generally accepted version is that it comes from the Monty Python song, "Spam spam spam spam, spam spam spam spam, lovely spam, wonderful spam&" Like the song, spam is an endless repetition of worthless text. Another school of thought maintains that it comes from the computer group lab at the University of Southern California who gave it the name because it has many of the same characteristics as the lunchmeat Spam: nobody wants it or ever asks for it.
TCP/IP -
The acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, TCP/IP refers to the suite of communication protocols used to connect hosts - computers - on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, with the two most important being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks and is thus the standard for communicating on the Internet. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
USB -
Universal Serial Bus is an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps (12 million bits per second). A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards. USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging.
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